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What is JWH-018, JWH-073, AM-2201, and HU-210?

K2 incense- Synthetic Marijuana Active ingredients

See What is K2 Incense? What is Spice? for a list of herbs used in synthetic marijuana

JWH-018

(1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) or JWH=018 is an analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family, which acts as a full agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, with some selectivity for CB2. JWH-018 produces effects in animals similar to those of THC, a cannabinoid naturally present in cannabis, leading to its use in synthetic cannabis.  The chief example of a JWH-018 application is K2 Incense.

At least one case of psychological dependence (as distinct from physical addiction) has been reported. The user consumed JWH-018 daily for eight months. Withdrawal symptoms were similar to those experienced as a result of psychological cannabis dependence.  JWH-018 has been shown to cause profound changes in CB1 receptor density following administration, causing desensitization to its effects more rapidly than related cannabinoids.

JWH-073

An analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family, which acts as a partial agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. It is somewhat selective for the CB1 subtype, with affinity at this subtype approximately 5x the affinity at CB2. The abbreviation JWH stands for John W. Huffman, one of the inventors of the compound.

On 20 April 2009, JWH-073 was claimed by researchers at the University of Freiburg to have been found in a “fertiliser” product called “Forest Humus”, along with another synthetic cannabinoid (C8)-CP 47,497. These claims were confirmed in July 2009 when tests of Spice product, seized after the legal ban on JWH-018 had gone into effect in Germany, were shown to contain the unregulated compound JWH-073 instead.

JWH-073 has been shown to produce behavioral effects very similar to Δ9-THC in animals.

Its effects are produced by binding and acting as an agonist to the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. The CB1 receptor is found in the brain. JWH-073 bind to CB1 with a higher affinity than THC, suggesting that taking more too soon after the initial dose could lead to diminished effects. CB2 is found outside the brain, mostly in the immune system. The binding with CB2 receptors has been shown to be similar between JWH-073 and THC.

A search in the literature yielded no published studies of the effects of JWH-073 in humans, but these studies in animals suggest with high probability that JWH-073 produces effects very similar to those of THC in humans.

AM-2201
1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole

AM-2201is an agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB1. AM-2201 is yet another chemical used in synthetic cannabis.

See also AM-694

HU-210

A synthetic cannabinoid that was first synthesized in 1988 from (1R,5S)-Myrtenol by the group led by Professor Raphael Mechoulam at the Hebrew University. HU-210 is 100 to 800 times more potent than natural THC from cannabis and has an extended duration of action.HU-210 is the (–)-1,1-dimethylheptyl analog of 11-hydroxy- Δ8- tetrahydrocannabinol, in some references it is called 1,1-dimethylheptyl- 11-hydroxytetrahydrocannabinol. The abbreviation HU stands for Hebrew University.

According to the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, HU-210 was discovered in Spice Gold products seized at the US border in January 2009. Over 100 pounds of Spice products were seized based on this finding. HU-210 was also detected in three Spice products in the UK, as reported in June 2009.

 



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